The ERC-404 Token Standard, Explained

Key Takeaways

  • ERC-404 introduces fractional ownership to NFTs, combining features of ERC-20 and ERC-721 standards, enhancing liquidity and accessibility in the NFT ecosystem.
  • ERC-404 allows users to buy and sell fractions of NFTs, enabling broader participation in high-value assets and creating new investment opportunities.
  • Unlike existing methods, ERC-404 facilitates fractionalization directly within the token standard, eliminating the need for additional platforms or intermediaries.
  • The ERC-404 standard may encourage wider adoption of NFTs beyond art and collectibles, fostering innovation in sectors such as real estate, gaming assets, and intellectual property rights.

What Is The ERC-404 Token Standard

An experimental proposal to close the gap between fungible tokens (ERC-20) and non-fungible tokens (ERC-721) is known as the ERC-404 token standard. This translates to combining the features of both to create semi-fungible tokens. Let’s dive deeper:

ERC-20 And ERC-721 Token Standards

ERC-20 and ERC-721 are Ethereum token standards, where ERC-20 is most commonly used for fungible tokens and ERC-721 for non-fungible tokens (NFTs). ERC-20 tokens are equivalent to one another and can be used to represent assets similar to currencies. 

However, each ERC-721 token has unique properties and metadata that allow for ownership and uniqueness verification on the blockchain. These tokens represent discrete digital assets such as digital real estate or collectibles. 

ERC-721 tokens promote innovation and a variety of use cases in decentralized apps (dApps) and the digital economy by enabling the creation and exchange of original digital assets, in contrast to ERC-20 tokens which adhere to a standardized format.

Key Features Of The ERC-404 Token Standard

Here’s a detailed look at the features of the ERC-404 standard:

  • Fractional ownership: ERC-404 enables the ownership of an NFT (ERC-721) by multiple individuals through fractions. You can buy and sell parts of an NFT instead of the entire thing.
  • Native fractionalization: Unlike existing methods, fractionalization happens directly within the token standard through minting and burning mechanics. Users don’t need additional platforms or intermediaries.
  • Liquidity enhancement: Fractionalization opens up NFTs to a wider audience and increases liquidity, potentially making them more accessible and tractable.
  • Dynamic trading: Users can trade fractions of an NFT as freely as fungible tokens, facilitating a more dynamic and engaging market.

How The ERC-404 Token Standard Works?

A new concept is presented by ERC-404: every token is closely connected to an underlying NFT. The related NFT is immediately minted into the buyer’s wallet upon purchase of a complete ERC-404 token, proving ownership of the exclusive digital asset. 

On the other hand, when a section of the connected NFT is sold, the corresponding portion of the ERC-404 token is destroyed, thus taking away the ownership rights for that portion. On the other hand, this action also generates a new fraction token, which represents the portion that is being sold. 

Then, in the event that a user gathers enough fractions to reassemble a whole token, each fraction is destroyed and a new NFT is created, reinforcing ownership once more. This technique makes it easier for users to trade and possess fractional shares of NFTs, giving them more opportunities to participate in the digital asset market.

Current Status Of The ERC-404 Token Standard

  • Still under development and not yet formally proposed as an official Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP).
  • Several projects are already adopting the standard, showcasing its potential.
  • Its future depends on community support, developer adoption, and potential regulatory considerations.

Benefits And Challenges Concerning The ERC-404 Token Standard

The NFT ecosystem gains a number of advantages from the ERC-404 token specification. First off, fractional ownership — which lets users buy and sell smaller amounts of high-value assets — improves accessibility and liquidity for NFTs. By democratizing ownership of priceless digital assets and diversifying portfolios, this feature creates new investment opportunities. 

Furthermore, the release of ERC-404 tokens may encourage the wider usage of NFTs in applications other than art and collectibles, like real estate, gaming assets, and intellectual property rights. This would encourage innovation and expansion within the NFT market.

But these advantages also bring with them some significant difficulties. Compared to current standards, ERC-404’s technical complexity may make it difficult for developers to adopt and may call for more knowledge. Widespread adoption may be hampered by the regulatory uncertainties surrounding fractionalized NFTs, which raises concerns about compliance and legal frameworks. 

To ensure the security and integrity of fractionalized NFT transactions, it is also necessary to address some inherent security risks and vulnerabilities. This calls for the implementation of strong security mechanisms and extensive auditing procedures to reduce potential threats. In summary, even though ERC-404 presents encouraging prospects for the NFT industry, resolving these issues is essential to ensure the standard’s seamless integration and sustained sustainability.


The ERC-404 Token Standard emerges as a promising innovation bridging the gap between fungible and non-fungible tokens, offering fractional ownership and enhanced liquidity to the NFT ecosystem. 

By combining the features of ERC-20 and ERC-721 standards, ERC-404 opens up new investment opportunities and encourages broader adoption of NFTs across various sectors. However, challenges such as technical complexity, regulatory uncertainties, and security risks must be addressed for its successful implementation.

Despite these hurdles, the potential benefits of ERC-404 signal a significant step forward in the evolution of decentralized finance, promising a more inclusive and dynamic digital asset market.


What is the key feature of the ERC-404 token standard?

The ERC-404 Token Standard introduces fractional ownership to NFTs, enabling users to buy and sell fractions of high-value assets directly on the blockchain.

How does ERC-404 facilitate fractional ownership?

ERC-404 allows users to purchase and trade fractions of NFTs through minting and burning mechanics within the token standard, enhancing liquidity and accessibility.

What are the benefits of ERC-404?

ERC-404 enhances liquidity and accessibility in the NFT ecosystem, offering new investment opportunities and encouraging broader adoption across various sectors.

What are the challenges associated with ERC-404?

Challenges include technical complexity, regulatory uncertainties surrounding fractionalized NFTs, and potential security risks that must be addressed for successful implementation and adoption.

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